Five great natural wonders in Africa
1) Mount Kilimanjaro
At a height of 5,895 meters about sea level Mount Kilimanjaro, located in northern Tanzania, is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest free standing mountain in the world. Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano made up of three volcanic cones, Kibo, Mawenzi and Shira. Kilimanjaro is covered by a continuous ice cap which is believed to be a remnant from the last great period of glaciation during the ice age. Over 85% of Kilimanjaro’s ice cap has disappeared between October 1921 and June 2011.
2) The Nile River
The Nile is considered the longest river in the world, running a full length of 6,853 km. The waters of the Nile River are shared by eleven countries, namely Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. The Nile is not only the longest river in the world, but also the lifeline for one of the world’s greatest ancient civilisations, the ancient Egyptians. With its annual flooding the Nile created rich alluvial plains which made it possible for the ancient Egyptians to cultivate wheat, flax and papyrus, and build their civilisation off of this agriculture.
3) Victoria Falls
Victoria Falls, bordering Zimbabwe and Zambia, is considered the largest waterfall in the world, measured by the amount of water that falls off its edge. The Falls form part of the Zambezi River. The Tonga name for the falls is Mosi-oa-Tunya, meaning ‘the Smoke that thunders’.
4) The Sahara desert
Covering a surface area of 9.4 million square kilometres, the Sahara Desert is the largest sand desert in the world. The name Sahara comes from the Arabic, meaning ‘Great Desert’. Without almost no precipitation and covered in endless sand-dunes the Sahara is one of the harshest environments in the world.
5) Serengeti Migration
Every year, from January until March, millions of wildebeest and zebra cross the great Serengeti in their annual migration to the Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya. It is estimated that in each migration around 260,000 Zebras move across the plains, followed by 1.7 million wildebeest and more than 470,000 gazelles. It is estimated that around 250,000 wildebeest die during the migration. This great odyssey across the African plains is the largest movement of animals in the world and is considered one of the greatest wonders of nature.